Please feel free to leave new comments. I am especially interested in hearing from others who have tried PI as a reading intervention either in the classroom or at home - whether it worked or not...
I certainly don't expect it to work with every child, because every child is different. But, so far, it's worked for every struggling reader that I've worked with and, at the same time, improved their handwriting and spelling dramatically.
Thank You For Visiting!
note: The GuestBook automatically limits your comments to 500 characters. If you have a comment or story that runs more than 500 characters, please submit it by e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org and I will make sure it gets posted.
To add your own comments please CLICK HERE ..................................................................................................
Name: Dale R. Jordan, Ph.D.
Date: 29 Jun 2010 12:07:45 GMT
Comment: Mr. Round has discovered and documented what neuroscience has established beyond question, that oral language is normal and natural for human beings of all races and cultures, but written/printed language is not. What we educators historically have called "reading readiness" actually has been specific "brain training" to build intra-neural brain pathways that learn to decode written language for 80% of the human race.That new brain pathway development occurs for four out of five youngsters of primary school age, regardless of culture or style of writing. However, 20% of the human race struggle to develop this brain competency for decoding print or encoding through penmanship.
I am able to assure you that the accommodations he brought to his dyslexic youngsters were exactly right, as his videos demonstrate. Dyslexic individuals simply do not have the usual neural potential to "learn to read" through typical methods used in America's classrooms. I am always deeply grateful for intuitive, compassionate teachers like Mr. Round who figure out how to honor such fundamental "learning differences" as he has with his dyslexic youngsters.
Dale R. Jordan, Ph.D Specialist in Reading Disorders
Comment: Mr. Round is doing cutting edge work in researching the brain and learning, and I commend him on his efforts to establish a new set of protocols for serving students who have PI (an acronym Mr. Round has coined for Print Inversion). I salute Mr. Round and encourage his intuitive approach to supporting all kinds of learning in the classroom!
Comment: Fortunately for his students, Steven Rounds is an extraordinary teacher who believes in TEACHING TO THE STUDENT, instead of teaching to the method. Would that every teacher had the understanding that learning is innate in children. They just have to be given tools that make SENSE AND MEANING to THEM!And for that a teacher must be an intuitive observer. His test is simple: HOLD A BOOK UPSIDE DOWN AND SEE IF A STRUGGLING READER READS BETTER! As with any remediation, IT'S NOT A SILVER BULLET. A good percentage of struggling readers will have other issues, but for the lucky ones who just need time to turn things around, this is SURELY A SIMPLE, BUT CRITICAL, TOOL in what should be an ever-increasing bag of tricks!!!!! EXCELLENT WORK, MR. ROUNDS! FOR THIS YOU SHOULD BE NOMINATED FOR TEACHER OF THE YEAR!!!!!!
Lisa Roseman Beade, Tutor Member of the Academy of Orton Gillingham Practitioners and Educators
Comment: Crucially, what Stephen has identified is a different developmental approach that millions need to be allowed and encouraged to use so that they can make a natural conversion from PI to the Western model for reading and writing. Where a lack of recognition of this developmental process has unnecessarily left millions of people with reading/writing disorders, without an explanation, and having to very often endure many hours of unsuccessful remediation.
Comment: I am known as Paschar on the World Wide Wed but my students prefer to address me as professor. I am involved in the study and research of a one time thought to be rare visual disorder known as strephosymbolia which is the medical term for the modern day term dyslexia.It has been my experience that any attempt to try to force a dyslexic child to read standard text is doomed to failure. I am a mirror image reader and writer myself. We need more teachers like Mr. Round who have learned to understand the world of the dyslexic student.
Comment: But Mr. Round... If what you are saying is true a lot of us will be out of a job!
My Answer: If PI helps even a fraction of the millions of kids worldwide who would otherwise face years of unsuccessful remediation, just think of the funds that would be freed up to hire teachers for Gifted and Talented Programs.
My guess is that many of the PI kids would be in those G&T classes.
Comment: Dear Mr Round, I just came across your exciting work on IP and immediately sent you a private message on your GuestBook but I am afraid it did not go through. Here is the reason for my particular interest in your work: Together with my colleagues at MIT and Harvard, I have done extensive behavioral and imaging studies on a young girl (without documented brain lesion) who reads, writes and draws upside-down. The scientific literature cites such cases as extremely rare but I was not surprised to read on your website that they seem to be much more frequent than hitherto believed. I would be delighted to hear more about your work.
Name: Colleen Pearl, Principal
Date: 16 Nov 2010 23:28:02 GMT
Comment: Your work is proving itself handily. When you dropped in this fall, I had two students for whom we were seeking help. At 7yrs. old, both were unable to read, yet had no other learning issues. Within one week of working with you, these boys were reading, writing and thrilled, realizing they absolutely could read, and read with ease. Thank you for pushing forward, keep going; there are thousands of students being discouraged and, sadly, defeated, by a system that ignores differences.
Name: Tiger's Mom (and teacher)
Date: 17 Nov 2010 02:02:11 GMT
Comment: Tiger started school in Kindergarten and, although he knew the letter sounds, he was not putting it together. In First Grade he continued to struggle. Mr. Round came to work with him and another boy in October. What a difference! It just started clicking for him, and he can now pick up a reader and read. It is amazing to see him reading and writing completely upside down. We are so thankful for Mr. Round and his way of teaching.
This can be found at www.dylsexia.com/links.htm in various ways, including by
keyword search, and through some topic headings, such as Health Information:
Vision Education: Reading
Also, of course your site is currently at the top of the "Newest Links" page.
As to your work and research -- we have found it to be quite common in our work
to find children and adults who are more comfortable reading (and sometimes
writing) inverted or reversed text. Thus your experience and research confirms
our own view that dyslexia very typically entails perceptual differences, rather
than being merely tied to basic reading skills such as phonetic learning.
However, it has also been our experience that we can correct perceptions through
orientation training, and that this can be done very quickly and easily in most
cases. That is why we begin every dyslexia program with Orientation Counseling
and help our clients to recognize and self-correct for disorientations. Our own
observation has been that reversals or inversions are associated with an
orientation point that is too far forward (which we sometimes refer to as an
"athlete's orientation") and we are careful in working with clients to be alert
to that issue.
Thus, we see the condition that you describe as "print inversion" to be a
functional issue related to how the student is using their brain, rather than a
hard-wired structural condition of the brain which would be more difficult to
change. So our approach with working with such a child would begin with
Orientation -- which you might analogize to simply teaching a child or adult how
to reposition a webcam inside their heads, sot that the information will be
perceived right-side up. (We refer to that as "mind's eye" -- but I am using
the above example to make clear that the repositioning is not a permanent change
or perspective, but rather a change that one learns to invoke at will).
I think this is confirmed with your videos of children who are flipping back and
forth in their reading, and your report of the little boy who could only read
upside-down, but was able to transition to right side-up reading after a few
weeks. Our view of that would be that as the child's confidence with reading
grew and his frustration decreased, he became better able to control his own
orientation. In other words, while our approach is to begin with orientation
training and then address symbol confusion -- your approach probably
accomplishes a similar result by addressing the symbol confusion first. (See
http://www.dyslexia.com/library/anatomy.htm for an explanation of the connection
between confusion, disorientation, and perceptual shifts)
We do think that your work is a valuable contribution to the field, and may be
particularly helpful to classroom teachers who do not have the resources or
ability to arrange for or wait for outside therapy for their students. You are
providing the teachers with a very simple tool -- the permission in their work
to simply allow students to try reading books that are flipped over and to see
how it goes -- which may in itself be a sufficient intervention to prevent some
children from falling behind in school. In fact, your approach may be a
time-saver for some teachers, who will realize that they do not have to
consistently try to "correct" a child who is holding a book upside down. (See
also http://www.dyslexia.com/library/edart.htm for a look at the harm to
self-esteem in such situations).
Information Services Director
Davis Dyslexia Association International
Name: Gail Crowley, (teacher)
Date: 16 Feb 2011 04:01:26 GMT
Comment: I have had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Round working with the children, Tiger and Isaiah. The boys have made remarkable strides in reading and now have joy in picking up a book. It is wonderful to see them have such excitement and eagerness to read.
Name: Kimberly Braga
Date: 17 Feb 2011 12:36:57 GMT
Comment:I am an employee at Mr. Round's dentist office here in Greenville, Rhode Island, and I have an interesting story to tell. Last February Mr. Round came in for his routine visit, and during our conversation about "what was new" he mentioned that he had discovered a very unusual, but highly effective, way to reach his lowest performing First Grade readers.
He had found that, although five of the children in his class had trouble even recognizing and naming the letters of the alphabet, they had no trouble when they viewed print upside down! As crazy as that sounded, he had a DVD with him to back up his claim, and he shared it with the doctor and me.
As we were viewing the video I mentioned to him that I had been reading nightly with my seven year old nephew as part of his Second Grade homework. During this nightly reading he seemed to become very anxious and was struggling. Each night he was supposed to read for 15 minutes. The reading material was age appropriate and just 6 or 7 pages in length, but when it was "reading time" he seemed very anxious and would start by drawing in a big breath just to read the title. He would begin to sound out the wards, often repeating the first "chunck" of the word over and over. He would get more and more tense and more and more frustrated as he went along.
Many of the same words were repeated over and over on the following pages but each time he came to them he would have to sound them out slowly and carefully. Many were the common "sight words" that should have been memorized in First Grade and should have been easy to pronounce. I assumed that, even though he had enjoyed school and never minded completing the homework assignments, he just hadn't developed confidence in this area yet. It became as frustrating for me as it was to be for him. I tried to encourage him not to concentrate so hard and try to pronounce the words with more of a flow. I wasn't sure if he was hesitant because he might be afraid to make a mistake or mispronounce a word, but even with my encouragement, he still seemed to "trip" over the words most of the time and, even if he did sound out a word, it didn't relieve his anxiety.
I asked Mr. Round if he thought PI reading might help my nephew, and he said it was worth a try and that it was simple enough to do. So I went home that evening and sat down with him, but his time I handed him his book upside down. He took the book from me and proceeded to read slowly, with much more ease and without hesitation. He made no mention that the book was upside down. The difference was unbelievable. The anxiety melted away and he began to really read. For the next several days I continued to hand him his books upside down and the hesitating and repeated lessened. After a week or so I began to hand him his book "right side up". He continued to read with ease and, again, made no mention as to the book's position.
It has now been about a year since my nephew began PI reading and he is doing great! He carries a book with him almost everywhere he goes and his teachers have seen marked improvement. He is a READER! I don't understand why it worked for my nephew, but he obviously isn't the only one. I have seen Mr. Round's videos of Tiger and Isaiah as well as the earlier ones of his 7 First Graders and there can be no doubt. It works!
Date: 28 Feb 2011 12:53:01 GMT
Comment:Well, just had a very similar discovery with an 8 year old today in the Adopt-A-Reader Program at my local elementary school where I volunteer as a friend of the kids having most difficulties reading. This little boy struggles so hard...Anyway, today when he turned his reader over, almost by "mistake", he instinctively went to the lower right hand corner of the page (which would be the top, if he were reading normally) and read with the improved fluency we've all been wishing for him for the whole year! I was flabbgergasted and had him repeat this trick to the reading specialist and his regular classroom teacher. They immediately wanted to correct him. I wanted to find out how he was able to do this, so came home and started research which brought me to this site. I'd really like to hear other people's opinions and experiences with dyslexia being treated by reading upside down. Tell me more, and what else I can do to help this kid? He's very bright, but I don't know any more of his medical or family history, other than lots of people have been frustrated in their efforts to improve his reading thus far. What else can I do?
note: This response was originally posted last month to another dyslexia forum that I am involved with. Hopefully, Terrie will let us know how things turned out.
Name: Bob Egelson
Date: 15 Aug 2011 13:51:38 GMT
Comment: I now have run into several colleagues whose autistic children watch TV upside down.
Great to see you and Sue last week will write again soon.
Name: M. Farnswarth
Date: 11 Oct 2011 17:36:24 GMT
I would like to know how do you teach a child like this? I know you say let
them learn according to their natural way (upside down), but when they are
learning new things how does that work (show it to them upside down and spell &
pronounce correctly the normal way for us)?
I have a 6-year old daughter in the 1st grade that sees words, letters, numbers,
pictures, and can read upside down. When she was in Kindergarten, I noticed
that she would write some letters and numbers backwards. I mentioned to her
teacher and school counselor that I thought she might have some form of
dyslexia. They told me that it was normal and by the end of the school year it
will clear up. Well, it didn't and 2 weeks before school was out, they informed
me that my daughter was having difficulties with reading and writing. All
through her kindergarten year, I noticed that she was having difficulties with
homework. She seemed so frustrated when we did homework and kept squinting her
eyes like she was having difficulties seeing what was on the page (she has good
vision). She is a very bright and an intelligent little girl. She communicates
very well and is outgoing for her age. She loves to learn new and different
things, but when she began to bring homework home that is when I noticed her
She went to summer school this past summer, and I continued to work with her on
letters, words, numbers, and reading. I continued to see the frustration and
difficulty that she was having with the things she had already learned. A week
before school started this year on a Tuesday I did my own experience on her. We
were going over her words (are, play, find, me). Something told me to turn the
words upside down, and when I did she was able to identify the first word "are"
correctly. I thought I was imagining things, so I showed her the next word
"play", and I asked her how did it look to her and she said funny, so I turned
it upside down and she was able to identify it correctly. We did the next words
"find" and "me" upside down, and she did it again without hesitating.
The next day, that Wednesday, we did numbers. First, I showed her the numbers
correctly and she said that they looked funny, so I turned them upside down.
She identified all the number correctly without hesitating.
The following day, that Thursday, I asked her about the TV (what does she see &
does it look funny to her when she is watching it). She said it looks fine,
except when there are words on the TV. Also, I asked her about pictures and I
showed her a picture the correct way and she said it looked funny. Then I
turned it upside down, and she said it looked better.
On that Friday, I asked her to read 2 of her books to me and she read them
correctly upside down. I have even printed out your test on your webpage and
she was able to identify all the letters correctly upside down.
Apparently, my daughter is going both ways now that I have discovered what is
going on. I think she is forcing herself to see it the conventional way at
school, so she doesn't want to be different. Her teacher is saying that she is
looking at things the conventional way and has not ask for it to be turned
upside down, but when she gets home I see her struggling with the words and
reading. I think she has worked so hard at school to convert things the
conventional way that when she gets home she is tired of converting them,
because if we go to another subject like math she perks up and is eager to do
I called her pediatrician and was told to take her to an Optometrist first to
get her eye check. In August she had her physical and her eyes were checked
then (20/20 & 20/30), but I did take her to the Optometrist. The Optometrist
checked her eyes and dilated them. They said her vision is 20/30 & 20/35 and
that she has a slight stigma, so they prescribe glasses for her. I did not like
the test because when my daughter was asked to identify the different letters
she had trouble identifying them. My daughter was facing a wall with a mirror
on it that had the letters on it, and I was facing the opposite wall that had
the monitor on it. The monitor that I was looking at had the letters appearing
backwards. The mirror that my daughter was facing has the letters looking
correct. Most of the letters that my daughter tried to identify were wrong and
not even close to what the letter was. My daughter knows all of alphabets. The
technician even made the comment that my daughter was off the chart. When the
technician left the room, I asked my daughter to turn around and look at the
monitor that I was looking at and identify the letters. She was able to
identify all the letters correctly. I informed the technician and told her that
my daughter could identify all the letters that were on the monitor which were
backwards. The technician told me that from where my daughter was standing that
was not 20/20. She said from where my daughter was sitting and how the monitor
projected the letters on the mirror that made it 20/20. I was very discouraged
because I did not take my daughter to the Optometrist because of the distance of
her sight, but because she sees things differently (upside down) as I had stated
to them while I was there. The Optometrist had not seen a case like this
before, but I did leave her a copy of your article with your website
information. She said that she would do some research and if she find anything
she would get back with me.
After that appointment, I took my daughter to her pediatrician. I told the
doctor about my experience with my daughter, and I let my daughter identify some
words, numbers, and read in front of her doctor. The doctor said she had never
seen or hear of a case like this before. I had the doctor to write a letter
saying that she has observed my daughter identifying words, numbers, and reads
upside down. I wanted to have something from a medical professional stating
this because I feel as though her school is not looking more into this. My
daughter's pediatrician said that she would look into this (consult with another
Optometrist). I left her with a copy of your article with your website.
I have meet with my daughter's teacher, tutor, and counselor about her
situation. Her teacher and tutor says that she is progressing and that my
daughter has not shown any signs for wanting to read upside down with them.
They said that when they have asked her or even turned the book upside down she
says that's not right. My daughter has come home and said that she wanted to
ask her teacher to turn the book upside down, but she was afraid and that she
did not want the other students to see her looking at the book upside down. I
think my daughter condition may be coming and going. She has a reading tutoring
on Tuesday and Wednesday mornings, and she says that everything looks good with
the tutor. My daughter has mentioned to me that in her regular class that
sometimes things look different (upside down). I don't know if things are
better for her in the mornings and as the day progresses that things flip on
Doing homework is so frustrating. She does not like to work on her words,
writing, and reading. I tell her that if it is better to turn the book or words
upside down that it is ok, but she hesitates which way she wants it. I think my
daughter is afraid to tell me everything that is going with what she sees,
because she does not want to go back to the eye doctor and get her eyes dilated
again. She has stated that she does not want to go back to the eye back and get
her eyes sprayed. I have been encouraging her to let me know what is going on
because I'm trying to help her. I am very caution about discussing this
situation around her, but I do ask her about her day and how does thing look to
I would appreciate any advise you may have. Sorry my note is so long, but I
wanted to give you some background as to what I have gone through.
Name: Alan R. McDaniel, Jr.
Welcome Page: http://www.goliadisd.org/
Country: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Date: 13 Oct 2011 19:29:16 GMT
Comment: I accidentally discovered that one of my students, who reads 2nd grade level on his best day, was reading from across the table. Further investigation showed that he could read better "PI" than he could normally. Googling produced some forum posts which led me here. In an Education career of 22 years I would not have guessed "PI" existed if I had not experienced it. I am grateful to be able to help a young man begin to read.
Alan R. McDaniel, Jr. Sp.Ed. Dept. Head GHS
Thank you so much for sharing this with us, Alan. You are the first High School teacher we have heard from. I know you won't be the last...
Comment: Hi M.Farnsworth,
Your experience with the Optometrist, raises a most important issue. Where given that a Letter Chart is one of the most common tools to identify vision difficulties. With a PI difficulty, this would make a Letter Chart test invalid and give a false indication.
But further to this, is a test for 'visual tracking', and the ability to move the eyes smoothly across a line, when reading.
Where I would suggest that PI would significantly impact visual tracking when reading. But not be a problem, when the page is inverted?
I will be writing to a professor of Opthamology about this. As a test for PI could easily added to Optometrists tests.
By simply adding a few lines of inverted letters, to a Letter Chart.
Name: Alan R.McDaniel Jr.
Welcome Page: http//:goliadisd.org/
Country: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Date: 19 Oct 2011 09:55:05 GMT
Yesterday was the first I had ever had any inkling that this problem existed. I have been a teacher, coach, High School administrator, and am currently the Special Education Department Head at our high School (That is a much bigger sounding title than the job entails, but...) C.J. is a 10th grader (16 years old) who has been in Special Education for his entire school life, with learning disabilities and dyslexia. My wife is our Elementary school Principal and over saw his early years as many interventions failed to produce results with his reading abilities. He is/was one of those extremely frustrating cases in which no matter what was attempted it never worked. In fact it seemed that he was regressing at times. He can copy legibly but cannot write a complete sentence or even spell.
His oral expression is higher than his reading/writing but is still not on grade level. Obviously there are reasons for all of this. He is currently taking "American Sign Language" which we count as a foreign language credit. He does very well and after one six-week grading period is producing excellent marks. It was from this class that he came to me for help in taking a written exam. I had read a passage to him and asked him to respond orally answering the question. This process has become drill for him over the years and has proven to be the only way to check for understanding and mastery of coursework. As he began responding to my question I noticed his eyes following the listed answers in the passage I had read. I was sitting across from him and he was reading the answers word for word upside down. The phenomenal thing about this was that he cannot read at all right side up. In fact upon his completion of the answer I turned the book around and asked him to read it again. He could not. I typed out a short passage and printed it in large font. I presented this to him to read inverted without any explanation. He read the passage with minimal prompting from me. Even with the prompting on words which had "wh' and "th" blends he read better than he had ever read before. Upon presenting the same passage to him normally, he could not read any of it. When I handed the paper to him right side up I watched his eyes and they immediately looked at the bottom right hand corner of the page, and quite understandably he could not read the passage.
I sent him back to class and allowed MY head to stop spinning. I called him back later in the day and we went through a few more very informal exercises, which further solidified in my mind that what I was experiencing was actually real. I broached the subject of "why" with him. He stated very matter-of-factly that, "That is the way I learned to read". I had coached this child in football and I responded in a coach-like manner that no one learns to read upside down, and asked him to explain further. He said that when the teachers would give him something to do or read that when he asked for help they would.............(now get this kicker) - take the paper from him, turn it around and read it to him and he would follow along as they read.
I'm afraid I was unable to completely hide my stunned expression. I had just been told by a lifetime Special Ed student that essentially, very well meaning teachers and teacher aides had in fact taught C.J. very well. He had learned to read exactly as we had taught him.
Now, as I have calmed down a bit and have read a bit more, I realized that he had a reading problem all along and perhaps he may not have learned to read at all if it were not for the inversion (inadvertent as it was) taking place early on. During the course of my informal exercises I had to take a walk down the hallway to gather my thoughts. When I returned to my room I found him reading the newspaper upside down. I asked him if he was understanding what he was reading and he replied that he was having trouble with some of the words. This is not surprising since I would have trouble with phonics upside down and backwards. The words that were giving him difficulty were place names and words that were not phonetically recognizable.
Unfortunately, he was absent from school today and I did not get a chance to continue working with him. I sincerely hope that these circumstances will prove to be a breakthrough for him in his reading. The best moment of the day was when I returned to class and found him reading the newspaper. It was a display of initiative that was beyond anything he had ever done before. He had, of his own accord, sought out reading material and was reading on his own. I cannot overemphasize the significance of this act.
Sorry I have not responded sooner. I have to juggle many things (major medical issues with my Mother & brother, work, and home) while balancing raising a 6-year old. In the process, my focus is the well being of my daughter and her situation. Since I last sent you a note, I called and followed-up with my daughterís pediatrician. Her pediatrician recommended that I go to her preferred Optometrist and I did.
Right before I took my daughter to the Optometrist, I had my annual physical with my doctor (OB/GYN) and mentioned to him about my daughterís condition since he was the one to deliver her. He explained that we all see things upside down and when it goes to the back of our eyes it invert the images and sends it to our brain correctly. I mentioned to him that my daughter was struggling with homework, and I told him about the experiment that I did on her. Also, I told him about your website and the concept to let her learn in her natural state which is upside down. He said not to let her read upside, but have her to read the correct way right side up. He said reading it the correct way will train the brain to invert the images correctly. (I donít know if I agree with him, but my daughterís situation has cleared up.) At school she is looking at things the correct way, but at home I let her look at things whichever way she wants to see them. I believe she had been forcing herself to look at things the correct way.
Iím continuing to discuss this condition with everyone I come in contact with. My daughterís condition has changed, she no longer is seeing upside or wants to read upside down. Almost every other day, Iím asking her how does her words look to her. She is saying that they look good. Also, I have turned her book upside down to see what she does and she will turn it right side up. Even though her condition has seems to have corrected itself, I did take her to see the other Optometrist (Dr. Chilakapati).Dr. Chilakapati said that she has seen 2 cases like this in her office. I told her that my daughterís condition has seems to have corrected itself, but I did want to see and consult with her to get as much information as I can about this condition. Dr. Chilakapti did a thorough examination of my daughterís eyes and did not find anything to cause her to see upside down. Dr. Chilakapti says it was a processing problem with her eyes delivering the images to brain correctly. If the condition had not cleared up on its own, she would have recommended that we go see a Neurologist.
My daughterís homework is not as big a struggle as it was. I think since it was a struggle in the beginning, she is still holding on to that idea that it will always be hard or a struggle. I do get a little resistance in doing homework, but once we start and I keep the encouragement going she will perk up. The other day when she did not have any math homework, she wanted to do some math anyway, so we pick out some pages in her workbook and completed some exercise that were not required to do. Iím encouraging her that education is very important just to function in everyday life like reading signs so she wonít get lost or knowing how to count so when she goes to the store she know how much things cost or how much change she should get back. Itís a slow process, but I know she will definitely start to relate very soon. When she does, there will no stopping her on wanting to learn even more.
I will continue to discuss this situation with everyone I come in contact and mention your website. Should I get any more information, I will pass it on to you. Best wishes on your endeavors, thanks for all the information you that you have gather on your website, and thanks for responding to me.
I am very glad to hear that your daughter's "condition" seems to be clearing up. May I suggest that it did not change "on its own."
By encouraging her to do what came naturally at home, you gave her the chance to figure out what she was doing differently (not wrong). Had you not been supportive at home, I think the results would have been much different.
PS I'm not at all surprised that your doctor said "not to let her read upside, but have her to read the correct way right side up .....reading it the correct way will train the brain to invert the images correctly."
That mind-set is what causes the problem in the first place....
Welcome Page: http://www.buildyoursite2.com
Date: 21 Jan 2012 05:27:38 GMT
Comment: Tutoring a 3rd grade girl. Very bright. Insisted that b was d, m was w, n was u. Tried her reading and writing with a mirror last week, and she read and wrote perfectly. Thrilled! Think I'll try upside down writing. Should she get vision therapy, or will this self correct?
Mirror reading is just another way some people "look at the printed page". She can probably write in perfect mirror image, too, with your encouragement, but it will be a little inconvenient for her teachers to read it. (Leonardo DaVinci wrote that way).
I've found that the PI kids I'm working with now can read mirror better than I can, so I'm guessing the reverse is true, too. Try having her read PI. If she does well, my guess is she will be able to write that way, too. As you've seen in the videos, kids who write PI can do a very neat job, and, to look at it, you would never know how it was written.
As far as the self-correcting, I don't believe you would even want to do that. In fact, I would encourage her to explore this talent. In our new economy, people who think "outside the box" will be valued rather than made fun of and relegated to SPED.
Best of Luck,
PS Take a look at this site, http://www.mirrorread.com/ Shelagh Robinson is doing some very interesting things with mirror reading.
Comment:I used to tutor special ed kids in grades K-2nd in reading and math (yes, I was a math tutor... great idea, right?). Anyway, one of my kids, who I will refer to as Bobby, was a first grader labeled by his teacher as possibly dyslexic and "difficult" in the classroom setting due to ADHD. He was impulsive, didn't sit still well, had a hard time staying on task, and was reading 2-3 levels below where he was supposed to be for his age. The levels were kind of arbitrary, but a first grader was expected to be a "level 10" reader. Bobby was reading at level 7-8 depending on the book.
The first few weeks of working with Bobby were a real challenge. He was a wonderfully sweet little boy, very kind to others, and just an all-around great kid attitude-wise. His behavior left something to be desired, but I understood that it wasn't Bobby's fault - he had ADHD, clearly, so his impulsivity and hyperactive traits weren't his fault. He felt guilty about acting out, but he just didn't have the behavioral maturity or skills to control himself yet. Anyway, one day I was working with Bobby and we were both having a rough day. He was not staying on task, kept getting up to walk around and distract the other kids (we tutored in groups in a large classroom setting, with several tutors and kids together in one room), etc. I was at the end of my rope so I told Bobby, "Let's take a 2 minute breather and just let our brains stretch a little, okay?" As I was sitting there trying to think of some new way to keep Bobby on task, I looked over at him and saw him focusing intently on the book the little boy across the table from us was reading with his tutor. I knew that the boy across from us was reading level 10 books, so his book was more difficult than any of the books Bobby had been trying to read. But Bobby was reading it. Upside down. I could see his mouth moving quietly as he read the words to himself, and he was reading it, actually reading it, upside down from across the table. So I got up and picked out a few level 10 books and brought them back and said, "Okay Bobby, let's try a new book, you pick." He picked one about trucks and set it down in front of him. I shook my head, flipped the book around so it was upside-down, and said, "Read it like this." He looked at me like I was crazy but I just nodded and said, "Go on, just try, read it upside down." And he did. He read that book from cover to cover with only maybe one mistake the entire time, upside down. He couldn't make it through level 8 books right side up without making 2-3 mistakes per page, or losing focus and wandering off half-way through the book. But he could read an on-grade level book all the way through with only one mistake, when he read it upside down. One of the single best moments of my entire life was the look on Bobby's face when he realized he had just read a level 10 book all by himself. He gained so much self-confidence because he FINALLY didn't feel stupid. I knew he had felt bad because he knew he was behind the other kids, but now he knew, he really could read. He just read differently. I told all of this to his teacher and to the staff teacher who was overseeing my tutoring. I explained the upside down book and how Bobby had read it all the way through, on grade level. They were stunned. They just couldn't believe that he could read that book upside down, so they came over to the table and I had Bobby show them. I absolutely believe that some kids are print inverted, and I don't know why. But Bobby was, most definitely. They no longer believed he was dyslexic, because he could clearly read with no problem upside-down. For the rest of the semester he was reading on grade level, some books right-side up, others upside down, depending on the kind of day he was having. Reading the books upside-down mitigated some of the symptoms of ADHD he was having too, oddly enough. He was much better at attending to the task when he read upside down than when he read the typical way. It was a really bizarre and interesting thing to witness.
The best part was knowing that I was able to help this kid gain not just reading skills, but self confidence. His whole demeanor was different after that. He didn't seem to dread tutoring anymore like he used to. Before that day he would shuffle his feet, sigh, walk as slowly as possible, and just generally display a strong distaste for his tutoring sessions. After that, though, he was much more engaged in what was going on. I won't go as far as to say he enjoyed it (really, what 7 year old boy wants to sit and read for half an hour when he could be playing outside?) but he definitely had a demonstrable change in attitude, about himself and the process. He stayed on grade level for the rest of the year. After thanking me, his teacher said to me, "This is why I love having tutors come in, and wish you could come in and work with our kids more often. I have a class of 28 seven year olds, it's really just not feasible for me to sit down and make those kinds of observations about every single child. When people like you come in, it lightens my load, and you guys see things that I might miss." It's disturbing for me to think that without the proper intervention Bobby would have most likely slipped through the cracks, possibly been misdiagnosed as dyslexic, and could have potentially suffered serious academic ramifications down the line. I wish there were more opportunities for kids in public schools to work one-on-one with teachers, tutors, or just generally with adults who could watch their progress and get a more complete picture of what kind of skills each child has. Dream big, I guess.
note: This entry used by permission and originally appeared on the www.dyscalculia.com forum
Name: Mary Calorio
Date: 21 May 2012 21:55:57 GMT
Comment: Let me first say, I am just a mom of a wonderful 10 year old
boy named Jacob.He has
always loved learning about new things.As a young child he always wanted to read books especially about the
solar system.I would have to read
encyclopedias and atlases of the universe to him at night.It wasnít until he started 1st
grade that we discovered school was not going to be easy for Jacob.His teacher contacted us in November to
set up a PPT meeting to discuss Jacobís progress (or lack thereof).I knew Jacob had a hard time with
spelling and math because he would reverse letters and numbers.However, the school kept insisting this
was completely ďnormalĒ for his age and he would out grow it.
Jacob hated going to school.It was heartbreaking to wake him up in the morning and
listen to him cry.He would tell
me that school was torture.Jacob insisted he was stupid, dumb and not as fast as all the other
kids.The school placed him in
Special Education and we began having IEP meetings.He finished 1st grade still not able to read all
the sight words.Writing was even
worse.You could not understand
any of his penmanship.So, we had
him repeat 1st. He completed the second year of 1st grade
with a reading level of mid-kindergarten.He progressed to 2nd grade being 1 Ĺ years behind in reading
skills, still not able to write and struggling in math.
By now Jacob was really able to understand that he was not
like all the other kids in his class. He started to become very anxious about
going to school. He began to bite his fingers to the point of bleeding.Despite all of our encouragement and
intervention, Jacob continued to decline both academically and
and 3rd grade, he made no progress in reading or writing and little
progress in math. The IEP team decided to have a full Neuropsychologial
evaluation performed to try to figure out why he was not making any
progress.The result was a diagnosis
of dyslexia and dysgraphia with executive functioning delays.We were told he was never going to
achieve the educational levels of his peers. One of the recommendations was to
fast track him into technology so he could start expressing himself. However,
this was even more anxiety producing for Jacob.
In February 2012, we decided to pull Jacob out of the public
school system and enrolled him in New Hope Academy.The first day he met with Mr. Rounds.That night my little boy asked me if he
could read me a grade 4 level chapter book inverted.He didnít once ask if he "could be done".He was so excited that he could
read.This was DAY ONE of a new
life for him.Since then he also
discovered that he writes perfectly inverted.He now gets 100ís on his spelling tests and keeps up with
the class on writing and reading assignments.He no longer chews his fingers.He loves school and is actually disappointed that the school
year is ending on June 1st.I have seen his self confidence blossom because he discovered how he
learns and is encouraged to do so.
Like I said, I was a mom of a great boy who was frustrated
beyond belief in his inability to read, write and perform with his peers.Now Iím a mom of a boy who reads,
writes and performs with his peers.He just does it a little differently.
Name: Karen M.
Date: 1 Jun 2012 00:52:50 GMT
Comment:My 12 year old son is an inquisitive, bright boy who has problems reading. Since age 3, he attended the French American school. He thrived in the bilingual environment during the preschool years. Both his dad and I are librarians who have read to him constantly. His first present was alibrarycard given to him the day he was born. He has been surrounded with books his whole life and spent numerous hours in the public library. He loves to listen to a good story, yet struggles with the written word.
A timeline of his interventions are: 1st, 2nd, 3rd grades: tutored by English teacher at school and during summers. End of 3rd grade: tested and determined reading problems were developmental by the public school system. Recommended no tutoring for the summer to give him a break. 4th grade: switched to Catholic school and tutored by a reading specialist using the Wilson program. 5th grade: tutored by the English teacher at school and attended RIC's summer literacy clinic. 6th grade: switched to public school and tutored by literacy specialist who reviewed phonics for reading and pneumonics for spelling. Results of testing by neuropsychiatrist: ADD and dyslexia. This week, we tried the Print Inverted reading method. Although skeptical at first, I have seen the before and after video of my son reading. A friend of a friend, Steve Rounds suggested that my son try reading upside down. After the first session, my son confides that reading at a 90 degree angle is better for him. Any way he reads is fine with me. It's unconventional, not yet researched based, but his fluency and accuracy has increased with reading at a 90 degree angle. Will he always have to read at a 90 degree angle? - maybe not - maybe it's just a way to train his brain to process the written word. All I know is that it just may be the "hail Mary pass" or the key that unlocks that literacy door for him. If it works for him, I'm on board. Will keep you posted. Gratefully yours, Karen
Name: Pastor Colleen
Date: 7 Jun 2012 10:15:32 GMT
Hello Everyone, My name is Colleen and I am the Principal & Head Teacher at a small Christian Classical school in NE CT. Mr. Round came into my school - out of the blue - two years ago this August. He introduced himself as a Providence teacher who was on stress leave due to some unusual conditions. He had discovered an intervention to use with the neediest of his students - those showing signs of dyslexia - and, even though he had overwhelming proof that it was effective, he was forbidden to use his intervention. Children that had previously found success were now failing because of this; Mr. Round left his position because he simply couldn't stand by and watch students, he knew could be helped, fail.
That summer day, he asked if we had any seemingly bright students who couldn't learn how to read. I told him we had two boys - Tiger & Isaiah. The videos on Mr. Round's website don't lie, both boys are reading successfully and writing legibly and confidently...upside down.
This winter we admitted a transfer student (4th grader from a local school), who has been through a barrage of "tests" to confirm he can't read, write (disgraphia, they say), or learn to spell (all spelling test were waived in third grade to help him). He was so stressed he was beinginng to hate school. He had Special Ed. intervention 8-9 hours each week for reading, writing, and math, and was being made fun of by his peers. Watch Mr. Round's video if Jacob and see what you think.
If our school had the funding, I would hire Mr. Round today, but we don't. We are working to spread the word that failure or labeling is not needed; reading inverted or not, is reading; and reading is powerful.
I have told Mr. Round that when the educational community is willing to see, it will recognize his work as a boon for many now struggling students; it will spread like wildfire. It's only a matter of time.
Date: 11 Aug 2012 23:25:41 GMT
Comment:Dear Mr. Round,
My name is Lynn Marshall and I am a Learning Specialist working with students in Alpharetta, Ga. In my private practice I work with students one-on-one, and many of my students have been and are dyslexic. I had an experience today which was both intriguing and exciting. One of my students, a teenager who has just started his senior year, has struggled with reading and math for many years. As we worked on a novel he was assigned, he read excerpts out loud in his usual halting manner, replete with errors and misreads. At one point, he looked up at my bulletin board, on which hung a small paper, with the print facing the board. He proceeded to read the upside down instructions (voter registration instructions, so this was not easy reading) perfectly. I was stunned, and, on a whim, asked him to turn his book upside down. Eureka! His reading improved noticeably and he stated that he felt more comfortable and was comprehending more of the text.
I have been researching this phenomenon all evening and came across your website. I have also e-mailed the website to his mother to view.
I do have a question, if you do not mind. What has been your experience with older (teenage) students, if any, regarding their ability to temporarily read upside down and then eventually switch to conventional reading? My student is reluctant to let anyone see him doing this as he attends a somewhat strict private school where convention seems to be the order of the day. I am considering approaching the school with the information I was "gifted" with today, and letting them know that it is likely that this boy may eventually read in a conventional manner would be a helpful in presenting my argument.
Thank you for your wonderful and informative website,
Lynn Marshall, M.Ed.
Name: Dr. Christian Kasztelan
Country: MUNICH, GERMANY
Date: 31 Aug 2012 15:03:03 GMT
Comment: Hello Stephen,
thank you very much for the very interesting talk about the PI print inversion topic. As I had promised I have contacted several fellow students (physics and math) who did have enormous problems with reading and writing at school. I stay tuned and look forward to their reactions.
All the best!
Name: David Marsh
Welcome Page: http://www.tomthumb.info/tt/
Country: UNITED KINGDOM
Date: 7 Oct 2012 23:02:35 GMT
Comment: A great site with some good issues from us all at Tom Thumb and friends. Thank you.
Comment: Supporting all those who expose injustice your friends at http://www.tomthumb.info/tt/ Yours Tom Thumb and friends.Thank you.
Name: Julie Zuckman
Date: 27 Oct 2012 03:10:46 GMT
Comment: Trained as a special education teacher, I have a strong interest in reading and early literacy. I've been a Title 1 aide, an afterschool tutor and a paraprofessional (though never a teacher). My own son struggled to learn to read in spite of being a talented artist with a photographic memory. He's in college now and I can't wait to have him try to read upside down or sideways. Anyway, I regularly work with kids who struggle with reading (as does any teacher). I can't wait to try some upside down reading experiments soon. Great website. Do you do any trainings? I am in New England.
Thanks for your comment, Julie. It will be interesting to see if your son has a preference in directionality of print. Please let me know what happens. My wife, who has been with me on this PI journey and who has been a teacher and Instructional Consultant, has screened almost 200 children and has recorded her findings on directionality preference in these children. We have shared the information we have gathered locally to a group of elementary reading specialists who then invited us back to speak to the entire faculty of a school. We have also been invited to present a Spring workshop at a local community college in New England. I will be happy to forward you the specifics at a later date when it is advertised by the college. Once again, thank you for your comment. I look forward to hearing from you again.
Date: 20 Nov 2012 08:59:56 GMT
Comment: My son is 4 and a half and has learned to write his name pretty well over the last month. He even writes it quickly. Anyway, today he signed something and wrote his name as an upside down mirror image. I held it to the mirror upside down and it was perfect. Thanks for your website. I find it insightful. I am going to keep watching him. I find this very interesting. :-) Toni
Name: Professor Stephen Waner
Date: 15 Dec 2012 20:11:21 GMT
Comment: Blessings to you Stephen, for doing what you feel is in the best interests of those with gifted visual skills , I highly endorse what your doing .
Name: veronika f.
Date: 15 Dec 2012 21:32:59 GMT
Comment: Sir, hats off for this discovery. This amazing method in children that we all were not able to see. One of my kids struggled with reading and kept turning books upside down. She is an A student today but her brother is going the same route and If I knew now what I found out she will have accomplished this earlier. Her brother does the same while trying to read books, keeps turning upside down. Sometimes he writes backward letters. This'll help him. I ask why haven't the schools recognize this? Thanks
Name: S. Singleton
Date: 30 Mar 2013 02:47:12 GMT
Comment: I am so happy I have found your site! My son, now 8, is left-handed. When he was little he always, very consistently, wrote backwards. Writing or reading from left to right seemed inconceivable to him. He simply had to go the other way. By the time he was six or seven, he had turned himself around and was able to read left-to-right quite easily. He began writing left-to-right most of the time. BUT... as he flipped himself around to go the "right" way, he lost his consistency and began to confuse "b" and "d" or transpose letters in spelling. He began to struggle with the difference between right and left (he'd been good at telling the difference as a preschooler). I am wondering if I should encourage him to return to writing backwards as a summer project. Maybe he will then recover his lost sense of orientation...? Very curious to hear your thoughts.
Name: FourSquare (6th grade Special Education Teacher)
Date: 19 May 2013 10:45:50 GMT
Comment:Note: This comment was originally posted on the AtoZ teacher forum. It is used with permission....
I have a 6th grade student with severe
dyslexia who has come to me reading at a Kindergarten level. He has
received intensive interventions and made some progress, but not a lot.
Today I was rolling through a pile of phrases on sentence strips that
contain high-frequency words. We usually complete this routine, and per
usual, he was struggling.
Do you know that I accidentally had one in the pile upside down
and he read the entire thing with NO mistakes? I remembered teacherman
and all his PI threads and decided to turn them all around. He read
them three times faster than he does right side up.
So we got several books....flash cards...anything I could grab. (This was tragically 5 minutes before dismissal. )
He read them all. Not perfectly, mind you. But fewer errors and way
better fluency. I have no clue about comprehension cause I was too busy
dying over him actually decoding words, but I plan to investigate
further on Monday.
WHAT THE HECK?!???!
We both nearly fell out of our chairs. That was the first time he ever smiled while reading.
I am NOT saying that we still shouldn't research it....or that we need
to return to posting 400 threads on PI.....but today my foot is in my
mouth a little bit.
Name: FourSquare (6th Grade Special Education teacher)
Date: 19 May 2013 10:55:45 GMT
Comment: Note: This is a follow-up to the comment above when asked by e-mail if there was any news on the PI student's progress...
Yes, some. It is all coming out now how this has been easier for him all along. He expressed being embarrassed at reading things upside down but that he wanted to. We started him working in the hallway with an aide until he got more comfortable. I revisited the whole "everybody learns differently and needs different things to be successful" discussion in morning meeting without calling him out. The other day he chose to read upside down at his desk! I gave him one of our school PBIS dollars. Nobody has laughed....in fact they're all jealous that THEY can't read upside down.
My aide keeps saying "I don't get it! I just don't get how he is so much faster!"
Date: 13 Jul 2013 01:04:41 GMT
Comment: Just wanted to say thank you for coming to help Mason. For the first time he was not so frustrated and asked to read that night. He asked if you were coming back and said how nice you were with him.....thank you
Name: Carla D.
Date: 29 Aug 2013 00:07:00 GMT
Comment: I have always been left handed & found out at an early age I was able to read upside down but never admitted this to anyone for fear of being too ODD. Throughout my life I have had numerous visual issues & to some extent I felt my reading upside down would again be considered more of a problem than not. Now I am pleased to know of my "ability" & that it is far from strange.I enjoy wearing shirts with small writing & make a game of reading the words just as a means to humor myself when I'm bored
Date: 24 Oct 2013 00:02:07 GMT
Comment: I have an 8 year old that has been struggling with reading. In Canada they won't do testing until they are 8. Last spring we discovered he could write his name uside down and backwards. this summer we discovered he could read upside down with little frustration. I have read lots of posts here and wonder if any of these children were preemies. I would like to know if this could be connected. My son was born 10 weeks early and 1lb 3oz.
Name: Chris Gregory
Date: 27 Jan 2014 21:53:24 GMT
Comment: I was having technical difficulties today and could not get a book to print. I posted it on my smart board and we did our guided reading from the smart board. The only problem was that half the pages were upside down. At one point, my 5th grader who is almost a non-reader, read a 7 word sentence fluently without sounding out words or stuttering. I was shocked. I knew his brain didn't process print but could this really be the answer? I can't wait to work with him more tomorrow.
Name: Colleen Pearl
Date: 26 Aug 2014 15:21:56 GMT
Comment: It's quick, it's simply - turn the book upside down and watch a child smile and fly! Why should any child be denied the right to read, and learn, because they may need to hold a book differently (for awhile)? What a shame, on the public school system, that it is so locked into confrmity, that it is considered better to let a child fail, flounder, and even give up, when there might be s simple solution. PI will not solve every learning stumbling block, but when it works, let it work!
Name: Tara Moore
Date: 11 Sep 2014 19:56:14 GMT
Comment: Mr. Round, I am very intrested in getting some information on this PI reading. My son is 8 years old and is diagnosed mild autism. He is now in his 2nd year of 2nd grade and is struggling so bad with reading, he cant even get any sight words. His theorpist was telling me how he can draw these awesome pictures upside down. So last night I thought I would try flashcards upside down and he read all 18, I then googled it and found your website. Please HELP me with any info I can get to help my son.
Name: Debbie Doss
Welcome Page: http://www.folsompreschool.com
Date: 10 Dec 2014 23:37:41 GMT
Comment: Mr. Round I just viewed your video providing your resignation to Providence. We need more people like you to stand up when we see a program just is not working for the children. I appreciate your courage.
Name: Dave Scotese
Welcome Page: http://voluntaryist.com
Date: 8 Mar 2015 06:11:45 GMT
Comment: Welcome to our club of people who have recognized system-generated suffering. Your work in helping young people learn to read is valuable. Some kindred spirits you may not know about are: Brett Veinotte and John Taylor Gatto. You can find their work at http://schoolsucksproject.com (Please don't be put off by the name - you know what they say about judging a book by its cover) and http://johntaylorgatto.com/
I encourage you also to explore voluntaryism at the "Welcome Page" I entered.
Name: Alisha T
Date: 12 May 2015 21:30:06 GMT
Comment: Hi Stephen, I write upside-down and have done since I was 7 years old, I am now 16 and actually doing pretty well in school and my writing is easy to read, parents shouldn't show concern for their kids writing differently because some people find certain things easier, writing with my paper upside-down doesn't affect my maths however I only check sin and cos graphs to make sure they are not wrong but they never are! I am a lefty! I KNOW the children are better of doing things their own way! :)
Name: Regina hellyer
Date: 28 Sep 2015 20:17:08 GMT
Comment: Have been tutoring a young woman (age 32) in literacy, native speaker of English. Today she said -- and quickly demonstrated-- " I can read better when the book is upside down." She read the text upside down and did a great job! No formal testing on her for dyslexia but informal signs of it in out tutoring sessions. I was so glad to see your website and posts. Thank you.
Name: Bonnie R.
Date: 27 Feb 2016 23:17:44 GMT
Comment: Hi Mr. Round,
I am an Occupational Therapist in a school district. I just received info about your website through a sped teacher. Fascinating. I recently went to a training on Bal-A-Vis-X and the presenter, Bill Hubert mentioned that when we are under stress our non-dominant sides shut down (ie. If we are left eye dominant, the right eye shuts down. The left eye takes over and wants to read right to left. Questioning if left eye dominance and left hand dominance are related to P.I.
Hi Bonnie, I'm not sure how they are related, but studies have shown that just about 90% of the world's population are right-handed, but I have found just the opposite. MOST PI readers are left handed - maybe not 90%, but close......
I am a tutor working with 8th-grade science students, all
of whom have learning difficulties of some kind. Not sever that they are
in any way dysfunctional, but they fail every test without a lot of
One student in particular is the most challenging, and I
am trying to figure out what is going on and how to help him best. He is
15, and seems smart to me in the sense that he understands everything I
want him to do, seems to understand the material, but tests very
poorly. I built an interactive app that helps demonstrate key concepts
(density, molecular structure, movement of molecules with heat,
categorization) and he does very well very quickly with anything visual,
process-oriented, few words.
He has trouble reading, slowly, stumbling over long words, confusing long words with each other.
I noticed last week that he reads upside down faster, very
smoothly, no stumbling over the same long words. I have not yet
determined if his comprehension is good with that, because he also has
trouble verbalizing. I have encouraged him to take tests upside-down,
but to my knowledge he has not tried it, he might be too self-conscious
My question is do you have any other suggestions from what
you have seen of other kids other things to do, other things that might
help? I will pursue the reading upside-down, but I am still worried
about his production, he is little able to verbalize. Any suggestions
Thank you for any help or ideas, and thank you so much for
posting this site. Just telling him that there are others like him will
(I am a tutor in science because I am retired. My degree is in neuroscience.)
Date: 10 Jul 2016 11:20:56 GMT
I hope you are doing well- I am so happy that I came across your
website. I tutor through an SES program as well as privately K-12,
multiple subjects. Recently, my husband's cousin came to me at her
breaking point because her son is going into 4th grade and can read MUCH
better upside down...and even writes upside down! She asked if I could
help him, and while I've successfully helped many students, this is a
new one. He has an IEP (which I have a feeling will be negated once he's
able to read at grade level). What is your advice on tutoring him?
Should I with him on fluency and comprehension while reading upside down
and let him transition to "right side up" on his own terms? Any advice,
even minimal, would be greatly appreciated.
This is Susan Round (wife of Steve who developed the PI site). You hit
the nail on the head when you said that you would work with this PI
child on his fluency and comprehension while he reads upside down.
There are students who transition quickly, some who transition slowly,
and some who don't transition at all. Please remember that the purpose
of reading is to be entertained or to gain information. The direction
in which one reads is not a primary concern (although there are
die-hards who would argue that we must all read with the same
directionality, there is no scientific research that states one
direction fits all and leads to success for all).
Finally, we would like to ask if you would consent to us using your
email on the website. It is extremely important for visitors to the
site to understand that PI readers do exist. It is not a rare
phenomenon (our research shows that 6% of the general population reads
better in this manner), and for people who are in doubt, your email as
well as the emails of others validates the learning difference of your
husband's family member as well as others with this learning
There's more below.........
Yes, down more.......
Name: Daniela Lafond
Country: UNITED STATES
Date: 23 Aug 2016 21:52:05 GMT
Comment: Thank you for your work and for this website! I found you by looking up "reading upside down" and "dyslexia", because my two year old always holds his books upside down and I was wondering if he might have dyslexia. I have always thought it was a neat trick that I could read upside-down, but never connected it to my extremely slow reading. My brother had this issue, too. Thanks to you, I will just let my son read upside-down. as he likes. Maybe he won't have a problem after all!
Name: Mrs. Le
Date: 13 Sep 2016 12:36:43 GMT
Comment: Hello, I found your page only yesterday after working with a struggling student who kept turning his book over when attempting to read. The student is 9 years old and in 3rd grade, but struggles to read even at a Kindergarten level. After observing him I think PI may be present... I'm curious though because the student is also an English language learner, though he has been in the US for 2 years with little to no growth. Wondering if you have experience with ESOL students and PI?
Hi Mrs. Le,
I am an experienced and certified teacher in Reading, TESOL, and
Elementary Education. Most of my 28 years of experience has been with
English Language Learners. As you know, every child is different and
develops differently (although on the same continuum of Listening,
Speaking, Reading, and Writing). Without knowing this particular child,
I will offer you my own experiences in working with ELL students who
range in Levels 1-3 in listening and speaking on the LAS Links Test.
Just as with your student, some of the ELL students I have worked with
use print inversion to better their reading accuracy and fluency. Their
ELL status does not have anything to do with their different visual
processing of print. I also have students who hold the book to a 90
degree angle (either right or left depending upon their own preference).
Therefore, I would not hesitate in using print inversion with your student, if, in fact, it is helping him.
I hope I have answered your question sufficiently. If there is anything else you need, don't hesitate to ask.
Date: 18 Jan 2017 01:22:33 GMT
Comment: I am a homeschooler of 2 daughters. Both girls absolutely hate to read. My youngest daughter used to write from right to left and would start from the bottom of the letter. I have asked a lot of people about this and the response was "She is just bored." Really? She mentioned yesterday that she finds reading upside down and/or backwards better. I went searching and found your site. I am in hopes that what I found will help her. I told her to just read upside down. She said ok. She is very bright otherwise. She watches a lot of YouTube videos to figure things out on her own. Hopefully, reading will come easier for her now.
Name: Rebekah Smith
Country: UNITED STATES
Date: 5 Feb 2017 05:06:36 GMT
Comment: Yes I find out after going through special ed that I am a pi reader and was pi writer!! Fist was told maybe dislexia but then no so they stuck me in a class and now I can still read upside down sideways so I'm so thankful for u and the hard work u do! Thank you!
Name: N. Robbins
Date: 1 May 2017 01:34:05 GMT
Comment: I have an upside down reader this year! I'm a second grade teacher and I got a new student this year who was basically a non reader. Her DRA level was an instructional 3. He father told me that he noticed that she was able to read words upside down when he was reading to her and she was looking over the top of the book. I was very skeptical and so tested it out. I timed her rate of reading on a few occasions, both reading right-side up and upside down and each time, her reading rate was more than twice as fast when she read upside down. She also made half the errors. So now I have her read the book the first time around upside down and then she works on reading it both ways during the rest of the week. I hadn't thought of seeing if she could write upside-down. I'm so glad I came across your article. Thanks for sharing!
*Originally published on Experience Project in 2015
Name: Marla Knotts
Date: 12 May 2017 16:44:49 GMT
Comment: I am a resource teacher and just found a 3rd grade student who needs to read inverted text. Our school year ends next week, so I am hoping to tutor this student over the summer to help her. Her teacher commented for her annual IEP meeting that she didn't know what to say about the student's reading strengths since she is a non-reader. I had the student read a decodable book upside-down at her IEP meeting. Mom and student both cried. Happy to finally know what's "wrong".
Name: Jessica Webb
Date: 11 Sep 2017 04:28:47 GMT
Comment: I came across your website when my second grade daughter told me that
she has found that turning her book upside down helps her read easier. I
had found it interesting that she
read more fluently through a glass window backward last year than when
she was reading something in front of her.
I am a teacher at Veterans Elementary School in Howard County,
Maryland. I have been teaching for 19 years and have taught
kindergarten, first grade, fourth grade and fifth grade and have never
come across this before. My daughter goes to school in Baltimore
County and unfortunately they are not known for innovation. They have
only this year begun using Fountas and Pinnell Benchmarking System and
few teachers have ever heard of Jan Richardson's Guided Reading, both
used in HCPSS where I teach.
On your website, I saw that you are conducting research studies on PI
Reading. I would love to have more strategies to help my daughter
through this. She has incredible comprehension and an extensive
vocabulary. I would love to avoid her reaching further
Comment: I have a daughter that is 7 and I have just discovered that my daughter reads better upside down. I reached out to her school today, so I am hopeful that they will look into this and give us guidance. She struggles and is frustrated with letters, numbers, reading and writing. When I read Mabel Farnswarth post I thought I could have written it. I am open to anyone contacting me with guidance. I had her do the simple PI test this morning and upside down was far easier, faster and less errors. TIA!
Date: 15 Aug 2018 22:13:14 GMT
Comment: Noticed my grandson writing his name upside down. It came out very well. He is in a very small school in the sticks of Miss. He is left handed. He seems to read conventionally just fine for a first grader. Should his parents inform his teacher in case he turns his paper upside down during his first spelling test?
HI Jeanne, Answering you a bit late on this, but it certainly wouldn't hurt to mention it to the teacher. Be sure to give her/him the website in case she's unfamiliar with PI. Thanks for visiting. Mr. Round
Comment: I conceive other website proprietors should take this site as
an example, very clean and wonderful user genial design and style.
Name: Marissa Albini
Date: 29 Oct 2019 19:03:59 GMT
Comment: About four years ago, my great nephew was reading well below his grade level and really struggling in school. He was in second grade and could not keep up. I had heard that some students who had trouble with reading dyslexia were able to read upside down. My nephew met with Mr. Round approximately three times, he could read upside down fine. After only a few meetings he said that it was easier to read right side up. From that point on he started to read much better and caught up to his grade level in the third or fourth grade. As he got older I noticed that he was getting 100ís on his spelling test. I asked him how he could do that when he hardly studies his spelling words. He responded that when he learned to read upside down, it really helped him with his spelling and that ever since then he found that his spelling was better.
Name: Mariana Navarijoa
Date: 1 Nov 2019 17:17:11 GMT
Hello Mr. Stephen Round,
am Mariana Navarijo and I am writing to you because I just came across
your video (RI Teacher Says "I Quit") on YouTube and I just wanted to SINCERELY THANK YOU for
posting it!! I cannot imagine how hard it must have been for you in
those moments to make such a decision but it has been such a blessing to
many people, especially to me!!
story begins as a homeschooling mom of a 10 year old boy. Currently he
is in the 3rd grade but due to a rough start in his academia, he has not
been reading as well as I believe he can. After watching your video, I
went to your website only to find ANOTHER BLESSING!! Dyslexia has run
in my family, although never officially diagnosed. I, myself, had a lot
of trouble with reading when I was in the same grade and had to be put
in a special reading class just to catch me up but what really intrigued
me about your site is that you mention ďUpside Down Reading.Ē
whole life Iíve always been able to read upside down and can sometimes
process and read things better and quicker when I do so. To be honest, I
used to think I was weird for being able to do that but now I see that I
am not alone and that this might be a key to helping my son succeed not
only in Reading but in other areas of his academia and personal
that you offer free assistance for students but I would be willing to
pay and even drive out to wherever it is easier for you if you could
somehow help my son as well. Also if itís easier I am totally open to
him learning with another student if that will help. Any assistance,
tips and guidance will be GREATLY APPRECIATED- THANK YOU in advance for
Many Many Blessings,
Name: Leah Creel
Date: 6 Nov 2019 06:49:44 GMT
name is Leah Creel. Iím 22 years old and Iíve been writing upside down
for as long as I can remember. I am left handed as well too which makes
people freak out but I havenít always gotten a positive vibe from
everyone. Iíve been called a freak multiple times and all these hurtful
names but Iíve overcome it. Itís hard for me to read straight up but
Iíve taught myself. The screen gets blurry and makes it hard to focus
which is why I turn it. I canít even write straight up, itís messy and
when it comes to writing on a board makes it even more impossible. I
pretty much had to teach myself because none of my teachers would
conform to the way I wrote. I have never been diagnosed with dyslexia
and honestly didnít even know there was other people who did it. What
other stuff would you like to know ? The Pi website made me feel so much better because now I know I'm not the only one. I always thought
something was wrong with me.
Country: THE NETHERLANDS
Date: 7 Jan 2020 20:47:47 GMT
Comment: I wish to thank you and your wife for making this phenomenon know to the world. I look forward to further investigations and pray for the strengthening our abilities as scientists, educators, advocates, etc., to nurture the next generations into well-rounded and well respected individuals, no matter the differences.
Name: Alisha Thomson
Country: SCOTLAND, UK
Date: 13 Aug 2020 22:11:17 GMT
Hi Stephen, I am 21 and have written upside-down since I could
remember. I am in my final year of Uni and doing great (as great as I
can anyone can with the COVID-19 situation obviously). I have been lucky
so far in being accepted by most teachers and lecturers although I have
had 2 terrible reactions... no one else is bothered. If anything, they
find it fascinating which is nice. Been accused of cheating in exam
halls a few times which is always a bit awkward when I have to explain
that it is just the way I write. Keep up the good work. I hope the kids
you are helping flourish!
Name: Bob Egelson
Date: 14 Oct 2020 20:01:58 GMT
Great Work Steve. I have passed on this website to many parents and
teachers here in South Carolina. Best wishes always and thanks for this
Country: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Date: 7 Nov 2020 05:12:07 GMT
Comment: 20245 amateur with hairy vagina http://wefeedamerica.org/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/cock/20001-natural-tits-teeny-pussy-to-mouth.php
24034 feet links victoria secret foot show http://foamboards.org/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/love/19205-pose-erotica-melena-suka.php
16262 grade latina babe buttholed pornhd http://www.selectinterest.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/pussy/12830-sweet-teen-honey-with-toy-making-sex-tape-for-you-outdoors.php
8728 older milf courtney cummz strips to mesh stockings and funky https://www.gamerotica.com/redirect?url=michelejullian.info/ass/9374-teen-assfucked-in-sexy-red-heels.php
3559 anny aurora redhead girlfriends http://polarity-paradox.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/amateur/22079-teen-nubile-young-pussy-cunt-spread-gape-ass-anal-fucked.php
3202 ulya redhead metart model girl tits juicy redhair http://www.shoesru.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/pussy/22168-teenage-blonde-with-big-round-boobies-spreading-her-legs.php
17010 nordica sexualna moloda http://searchforjobs.us/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/cock/2794-white-teens-black-cocks-whiteteensblackcocks-model-valuable.php
23364 steven croix stripping kissing small titted hot pornsta http://heritageplazabuilding.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/hairy/8442-emi-nubiles-hot-freckle-faced-nubile-spreads-her-tight.php
19555 amateur outdoor ficktiere mit pracht rschen def http://concealagespots.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/ass/4586-petite-gorgeous-riley-reid-flaunts-her-sweet-oiled-ass-suc.php
21296 cute teen screams with pleasure as big dick penetrates her tight asshole http://hawaiiunderwater.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/cock/16547-sexy-babe-brea-lynn-spreading-wide-open.php
9397 tiny tit black cutie gets juicy pink and ass filled with meat http://rainshadecollies.info/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/anal/19432-redhead-cutie-gets-surprise-anal-pichunter.php
820 femjoy aida naturist http://esubrohub.biz/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/stockings/17406-fetish-mary-jane-mayhem-feet-fetis.php
7102 amateur damn look at that ass amat http://wildwoodsonfire.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/amateur/10730-amateur-teens-behaving-badly.php
4845 melissa lauren lusty hardcore http://www.over-unity.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/blonde/238-tits-hot-teen-attention-whores-sluts-blonde.php
22125 alice merchesi gets her shaved snatch slammed by stepbro http://n291adserv.com/cr?b=545&p=3&c=27&h=61c94b5f0bed59c28cbb51a5754f2aaf&l=NL&tz=-7.0&sh=732.0&sw=412.0&ad.trans.id=i8zv1dc8600p&o=cutepix.info%2fsex%2friley-reyes.php&UUID=db0be070-4ba0-11e9-9478-141877587545&t=1553148985337&DC=WZ&u=https%3a%2f%2fmichelejullian.info%2fhardcore%2f20754-these-were-brought-to-you-by-my-sisters-hot-friend-visit.php
21477 redhead sweety rainia belle gets massive wiener http://mjammalupholsterycom.spmd.mobi/analytics/hit.php?nocache=1465082809.7151&r=cutepix.info%2fsex%2friley-reyes.php&a=3&i=223360&r2=https%3a%2f%2fmichelejullian.info%2fhairy%2f3653-realbooru-asian-ass-hairy-pussy-vagina-japanes.php
21723 furry pussy redhead mona spreading snatch atk natural http://gerberdemexico.us/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/amateur/23681-amateur-busty-amateurs-botb-large-breasted-super-hotties.php
7541 blonde beauty irene poses her skinny body with long legs http://kentswig.mobi/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/stockings/23651-teen-kasia-archives-of-vide.php
2629 skinny teen merrie heys enjoys her first time anal penetration http://patparra.org/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/milf/19944-black-panties-and-tight-dress-blonde-milf-fucked-alongside.php
6613 iwia and bella baby menage trois from babes http://round-boxes.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/teen/19940-teen-cute-pretty-sweet-fresh-and-young-dana-volume.php
25025 nikki benz gets nailed in nude stockings courthouse http://blog-tours.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/teen/9234-teen-smoking-and-step-siblings-threesome.php
7605 hot blonde chick nina elle sucks cock after taking bubbl http://www.h2oproofrainwear.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/teen/25331-charlotte-springer-knee-highs-brown-haired-young-woman-legs-sofa.php
21235 slim brunette teen lily gets fucked http://suzygreen.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/blonde/82-solo-teen-blonde-model-with-glasses-fingers-herself.php
24442 asshole fever helena sweet september anal sex locker http://kingdomanime.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/ass/1992-megan-jones-gets-fucked-during-work-hours-ass-point.php
19862 amateur private wichsvorlagen aus aller welt http://utahhousingcorp.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/love/14251-nika-hegre-bravo-erotica.php
17073 met art orea caesaria http://showyourspeed.net/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/cock/15998-teen-turns-morning-workout-for-hardcore-fucking-with-huge-cock.php
22624 awesome blonde hottie shoplyfter riley star slowly sucks his http://autoten.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/cock/21607-older-man-plays-with-fresh-teen.php
25283 foxxy suicide gets naughty in kitchen coed cherry http://performancebydesign.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/milf/11362-tgirls-crossdresser-modern-montlar.php
3870 naughtyamerica emily mena system tittyfuck pornpicsashley http://www.mikelmassey.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/stockings/23349-shelley-roberts-sexy-stockings-blonde-girl-girls-white-legs-sofa.php
23364 steven croix stripping kissing small titted hot pornsta http://mdayspainthecitycom.spmd.mobi/analytics/hit.php?nocache=1465249037.4847&r=cutepix.info%2fsex%2friley-reyes.php&a=3&i=4716804&r2=https%3a%2f%2fmichelejullian.info%2fblonde%2f13826-scarlet-red-star-blonde-for-mobi.php
Country: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Date: 8 Nov 2020 05:49:57 GMT
Comment: 9105 amateur cum in her mouth viii http://wbjazz.biz/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/ass/6791-passion-chloe-scott-torrentfunk.php
18164 cock riding teenie http://urbandermatology.org/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/pussy/11699-white-pornstar-jenna-haze-gets-banged-after-she-her-pus.php
16746 teen abelinda fucking herself in the bedroom coe http://tatone.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/teen/2372-japanese-kaori-manaka-yardschool-tubetubetube-jav.php
21121 two young lesbians in beautiful lingerie licking pussy russi http://wholetoyshop.org/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/brunette/4121-gorgeous-euro-babes-taking-one-huge-cock.php
9661 teeny wird in den arsch gefickt http://soundassociatesltd.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/babe/13686-arteya-nude-in-from-wowgirls.php
12991 almendra tattoo girls http://desktoputilityservice.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/amateur/20501-nancy-nubile-films.php
6283 lex pretty young things http://ahmerica.us/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/teen/14318-teen-dreams-anjelica-with-her-legs-over-head.php
4302 homeless girl gets fucked for new life bang bus teen sex http://rcyd.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/pussy/21149-perfect-pussy-streaming-or-on-demand.php
16699 elle rose pornstar http://bioeyes.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/hardcore/10300-horny-dude-nailing-the-retro-girl-behind-bar-hardcore.php
20104 busty beauty chikita blonde http://glimt.it/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/tits/16289-big-tits-with-keisha-grey.php
18544 super hot teens lesbians analingus and toys http://eastendpolicefoundation.net/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/love/21871-masturbation-michell-pissing-screenshots-from-lovewetting-com.php
19813 nice teen vlada loves hard anal http://mandoverelectriccom.spmd.mobi/analytics/hit.php?nocache=1465128630.7941&r=cutepix.info%2fsex%2friley-reyes.php&a=3&i=5060839&r2=https%3a%2f%2fmichelejullian.info%2fteen%2f12869-met-art-nika-direct-teen-hottie-sex.php
19814 see and save as assholes teen mature amateur asses http://tomconley.tc/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/hardcore/20116-another-young-innocent-ladyboy-hard-fucked.php
2475 cute teen tanner mayes fucks and gets facial http://teamphil.net/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/stockings/21574-hot-older-blonde-veronica-del-uno-toys-her-shaved-pussy-in-black-boots.php
2387 sexy teen michelle can gets her pussy licked good and finger http://www.intelliporn.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/hairy/8158-skinny-hairy-amateur-babe-vasilisa-spreading-her-tasty-furry.php
3085 japanese bondage vjav http://www.haustechnikdialog.at/redirect.ashx?typ=hersteller&url=https%3a%2f%2fmichelejullian.info%2fcock%2f15123-kadence-marie-in-oral-cock-surfing-coed-cherry.php
2558 sissy kayla rides her dildo gay http://mperrysplantationcom.spmd.mobi/analytics/hit.php?nocache=1465129241.6452&r=cutepix.info%2fsex%2friley-reyes.php&a=3&i=4632143&r2=https%3a%2f%2fmichelejullian.info%2fstockings%2f4490-ribald-girl-kali-roses-in-black-stockings-awarded-with-sperm-on-face.php
2129 babe today teen mega world michelle can stefy shee hot europ http://cometorapidcity.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/sexy/9329-depraved-girls-their-wasku-city.php
6042 elle alexandra is unable to resist malena morgan and soon the two http://www.tahoejoefamoussteakhouse.net/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/ass/7675-phecda-riae-tattoo-girls.php
20296 india summer in black stockings gets fucked anally by tattoo http://modernova.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/pussy/14970-bondage-mistress-tiffany-tries-out-her-new-pussy-polishe.php
21983 ideal lesbian cuties get covered with piss and blast wet snatches http://beschriften24.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/lesbian/18119-lesbian-day-she-completely-dominated-me-lezdom.php
24256 legsjapan yui kawagoe luxury sex jav http://jewishvi.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/hardcore/15561-hegre-art-flora-on-fire.php
17395 makayla model erotica http://ultivium.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/brunette/11779-brunette-teen-meg-magic-gets-covered-in-sticky-cum-at-world.php
68 river fox feet wikifeet http://bobjaffe.org/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/blonde/2764-blonde-takes-off-her-blue-dress-to-pose-nude.php
22579 hardcore fast riding holly hendrix has some fun with her dad friend http://broadwaylimited.biz/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/tits/24339-big-breast-nurses-scene-with-jack-lawrence-jessica.php
23950 tigerr benson in sexy lingerie and black stockings gets fuck http://elessonplanhub.org/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/milf/8693-wearehairy-model-milfmania-hirsute-babes-tsplaygr.php
10027 bukkake de fotos britbuk https://m.401kfe.com/analytics/hit.php?nocache=1554745490.6121&r=cutepix.info%2fsex%2friley-reyes.php&a=12&i=5470160&r2=https%3a%2f%2fmichelejullian.info%2fblonde%2f4778-blonde-nikki-in-hardcore-action.php
23490 mandy kay me play with my toys http://btgpactual.co/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/nude/2404-emily-bloom-the-angel.php
14600 sultry blonde babe rosalyn masturbating in bed babeserver http://www.ohiobigi.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=michelejullian.info/milf/12345-mommy-blows-angel-smalls-nina-elle-tons-of-threesome.php
3488 cute blonde heather starlet undressing to tease topless in sexy lace https://www.honeyfund.co.uk/Redirect?u=michelejullian.info/mature/20681-old-jaylee-mature-outdoors-sex.php
Date: 17 Dec 2020 21:44:06 GMT
Comment: Learn how to trade and invest in BITCOINS, contact Mrs Maria Eduarda Bernardo today she will give you all the info you need to know about cryptocurrencies and at the same time she can help you make life changing profits by bitcoin email: email@example.com or whatsApp her on +1 (847) 716-2201